# #91 Global TOPS Resource Manual (grades 3-10)

Regular price $64.00

*Perfect-bound, 272 page compilation, 100 reproducible activity sheets, full teaching notes. *

Take a box of 15 basic materials anywhere in the world, add a few local recyclables, and teach an amazing range of hands-on science. Topics compiled from books in our popular Activity Sheet series include balancing, electricity, magnetism, pendulums, metrics, animals and plants. No science background is assumed: these labs are supported by thorough, thoughtful user friendly teaching notes. At 67 cents per lesson, this compilation is thriftier than purchasing each book separately.

**Global TOPS Starter Kit**

*book not included, please order separately*

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**Click here for a complete list of materials and convenient shopping.**

*Gather these 15 basics plus recyclables to teach ALL 100 lessons in this book! Quantities are sufficient for 30 students working in 15 pairs. Starred* items may be purchased below.*

Materials to Purchase

15 pair Scissors

* 11 boxes of Paper Clips

* 5 rolls of Masking Tape

* 120 medium-sized Rubber Bands

* 8 rolls Clear Tape

* 1 box steel Straight Pins

* 90 wooden spring-action Clothespins

* 2 rolls Aluminum Foil

* 60 size-D Batteries

* 40 Flashlight Bulbs

* 1 box fine-grade Steel Wool

* 70 small Ceramic Magnets

* 1 roll plastic-insulated Copper Wire

* 30 medium-sized Nails

Available and Recycled Materials

1 Wall Clock with second hand sweep (or substitute wristwatches)

30 small Coins (pennies) of uniform size

15 Hand Calculators

30 medium-sized Cans

1 small package each of Pinto Beans, Popcorn, Lentils and long-grained Rice (or locally available seeds)

* 15 Bottle Caps

15 Pen Caps

1 handful of Scratch Paper

1 Water Source

* 30 small glass Jars with Lids.

15 large glass Jars

1 package Table Sugar (used in one activity)

1 package Table Salt (used in one activity)

local Insects and Animals to observe

1 ball String

various Paints, Crayons, or Colored Pencils

1 handful Newspaper

1 small bag Potting Soil

1 roll Plastic Wrap

School Supplies

1 Notebook or supply of notebook paper

1 Pencil

1 Eraser

**A. INVESTIGATING PENDULUMS**- 1. To observe a pendulum and describe its motion. To understand, in qualitative terms, how the frequency of a pendulum changes with length.
- 2. To make a pendulum that ticks out time like a clock -- 60 cycles per minute.
- 3. To determine if changes in bob weight affect the frequency of a pendulum.
- 4. To determine if changes in amplitude affect the frequency of a pendulum.
- 5. To understand why the length of a pendulum must be measured from the pivot to the center of the bob.
- 6. To observe energy transfers in coupled pendulums of equal and unequal length. To appreciate that a pendulum optimally accepts energy when it is delivered in phase with its natural frequency.
- 7. To observe energy transfers between pendulums that wind around each other. To predict how this motion changes as you make one pendulum longer than the other.
**B. PENDULUM MATHEMATICS**- 1. To find the frequency of a 5 cm, 6 cm and 7 cm pendulum. To discover a short-cut method for determining frequency.
- 2. To discover a squared relationship between pendulum frequency and length. To apply this relationship in a predictive way.
- 3. To graph pendulum frequency as a function of length. To read and interpret the resulting graph.
- 4. To mathematically predict the frequency of paper-clip chains. To confirm these predictions by experiment.
- 5. To graph how the frequency of a paper-clip chain varies with length.
- 6. To calculate the square root of two, first by using pendulum ratios, then by using simple geometry.
- 7. To graph how the weight of the bob affects amplitude decay in a pendulum.
**C. BALANCE BEAMS**- 1. To fold a paper beam to use in a math balance.
- 2. To complete construction of the math balance.
- 3. To get acquainted with a math beam. To diagram various ways that paper clips can balance on the beam.
- 4. To understand that paper clips add up to equal sums on each arm of a balanced beam.
- 5. To understand that paper clips multiply to equal products on each arm of a balanced beam.
- 6. To understand the mathematics of balancing. To gain further experience with balance beams.
- 7. To practice expressing complex balance combinations as mathematical equations.
- 8. To mathematically predict and then verify a state of balance or imbalance on a math beam.
- 9. To mathematically predict and then verify whether a balance beam tilts left, right, or remains level.
**D. COMPARING MASSES**- 1. To fold a paper beam to use in an equal-arm balance.
- 2. To complete construction of an equal-arm balance.
- 3. To make mass comparisons on a balance beam and thereby generate simple mathematical relationships.
- 4. To find the mass of common classroom objects using a paper-clip standard of measure.
- 5. To find the mass of common classroom objects using a mass standard refined to a tenth of a paper clip.
- 6. To count an unknown quantity of paper clips by comparing their mass to a known number of paper clips on a balance.
- 7. To develop a series of gram masses to use with the equal arm balance.
- 8. To graph how the total mass of paper clips increases in direct proportion to their total numbers.
- 9. To convert from paper clip units of mass to standard gram units. To compare calculated mass values with experimental values.
- 10. To graph how the mass of seeds increases in direct proportion to their numbers. To understand slope as a function of seed size.
**E. DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS**- 1. To measure distance with a metric ruler. To recognize the metric cube as a basic unit of metric expression.
- 2. To develop a concrete understanding of area. To learn how to calculate area and express it as squared measure.
- 3. To develop a concrete understanding of volume. To learn how to calculate volume and express it as cubed measure.
- 4. To measure a box in one, two, and three dimensions. To distinguish between length, area and volume.
- 5. To develop a metric volume standard for measuring out small amounts of water.
- 6. To find volumes using liquid measure. To calibrate a glass jar at the 100 mL level.
- 7. To distinguish between 5 different units of measure.
- 8. To find the volume of a can using different instruments of liquid measure. To calibrate a jar in 100mL increments up to 1 liter.
- 9. To estimate the number of seeds in a can by comparing volumes.
- 10. To correlate the mass of a substance with its floating and sinking characteristics.
**F. TALKING METRIC**- 1. To understand the language of metric prefixes. To learn how to make metric conversions by moving the decimal point.
- 2. To estimate large numbers. To understand metric multiples in concrete terms.
- 3. To visualize how metric units fit together as multiples of 10. To practice expressing one measure in terms of another.
- 4. To become familiar with 42 important interrelated facts about metric volume, mass, and length.
- 5. To firmly link metric units with common conversion factors and concrete images.
- 6. To memorize metric relationships in a fun way.
**G. SIGNIFICANT FIGURES**- 1. To learn how to read a ruler accurately, estimating the last digit.
- 2. To distinguish between certain figures and uncertain figures. To appreciate that no measurement is exact.
- 3. To practice reading a hairline (in significant figures) that crosses rulers calibrated in centimeters and millimeters.
- 4. To practice measuring accurately with a ruler. To recognize that estimating is always necessary, no matter how accurate the ruler.
- 5. To practice measuring physical objects with a meter tape. To estimate the last digit.
- 6. To discover basic body proportions by making accurate measurements with a meter tape. To appreciate that body units of measure are not standard.
**H. BULBS AND BATTERIES**- 1. To discover by trial and error how to light a bulb with a dry cell and ribbon.
- 2. To further explore by trial and error the different ways to light a bulb with dry cell and ribbon.
- 3. To use the idea of contact points to predict if a bulb will light. To test these predictions by experiment.
- 4. To learn how to connect cells in series and opposition. To understand how this affects bulb brightness.
- 5. To learn how to connect cells in parallel. To understand how this affects bulb brightness.
- 6. To use a bulb and dry cell to test whether common materials in the classroom are conductors or insulators.
- 7. To construct a circuit puzzle. To find by trial and error those holes that are connected and those that are not.
**I. CIRCUITS**- 1. To make a bulb holder and dry cell holder to use in later activities.
- 2. To make a switch and integrate it into a simple circuit. To study how alternate pathways around the bulb and switch affect a simple circuit.
- 3. To learn how to draw simple circuit diagrams using accepted symbols. To predict how electrons flow through these circuits.
- 4. To practice mapping and drawing more complicated circuit diagrams. To predict how electrons flow through these circuits.
- 5. To learn how to connect dry cells to achieve maximum brightness.
- 6. To understand why electricians wire buildings in parallel, rather than in series.
- 7. To build 2-way switches and integrate them into a circuit. To understand how they work.
**J. ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE**- 1. To understand how length and diameter affect electrical resistance in wire.
- 2. To watch a miniature fireworks show! To appreciate that high electrical resistance creates heat and light.
- 3. To appreciate that the flow of electricity decreases with increased resistance.
- 4. To understand how fuses work to protect circuits from shorts and overloads.
**K. MAGNETS**- 1. To recognize that only a few metals, like iron and steel, are attracted by a magnet.
- 2. To identify, then label, the north and south poles on unmarked magnets by using the Earth's magnetic field as a reference.
- 3. To observe interactions between rotating magnetic fields.
- 4. To observe that a magnetic field passes unchanged through solid objects unless they are magnetic.
- 5. To graph how the strength of a magnet decreases with increased distance from the magnet.
**L. MAGNETIC FIELDS**- 1. To build a pin compass and observe how it works.
- 2. To practice finding directions with a compass.
- 3. To practice using a compass to determine directions between reference points in the classroom.
- 4. To map the shape of a magnetic field that surrounds a magnet.
- 5. To map the shape of two interacting magnetic fields that attract.
- 6. To map the shape of two interacting magnetic fields that repel.
**M. INVENTIONS**- 1. To learn how to construct and use an electromagnet. To appreciate that electromagnets are temporary, working only as electricity passes through the coil.
- 2. To build two simplified models of an electric motor. To understand how they work.
- 3. To build a working model of a telegraph. To understand how it works.
- 4. To build a working model of a buzzer. To understand how it works.
- 5. To build an on-off motor that spins by bouncing.
**N. ANIMALS**- 1. To observe similarities and differences between yourself and another animal.
- 2. To provide a generalized form useful for observing a diversity of animal life, both in and out of the classroom. To understand the distinction between an observation and an hypothesis.
- 3. To appreciate how each body part helps a bird survive in its own particular environment.
- 4. To camouflage paper moths so they blend into the patterns and textures of classroom surfaces.
- 5. To examine speed, endurance, and camouflage as survival techniques. To consider the trade-offs.
- 6. To recall many different ways that animals survive. To relate animal survival strategies to variations in habitat.
**O. PLANTS**- 1. To compare and contrast two kinds of seeds in words and pictures. To sprout these seeds in a warm, moist environment.
- 2. To study the effects of light and darkness on the germination and growth of seeds.
- 3. To construct an inexpensive, low-maintenance, space-conserving system for growing plants.
- 4. To record in words and pictures the daily development and growth of germinating seeds.
- 5. To accurately track the growth of seedlings over 3 weekly intervals on a drawing grid.

#### TEACHING Standards

These 100 activity sheets promote excellence in science teaching by these NSES criteria:

Teachers of science...

A: ...plan an inquiry-based science program. (p. 30)

B: ...guide and facilitate learning. (p. 32)

C: ...engage in ongoing assessment of their teaching and of student learning. (p. 37)

D: ...design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources needed for learning science. (p. 43)

#### CONTENT Standards

These 100 activity sheets contain fundamental content as defined by these NSES guidelines (p. 109).

• Represent a central event or phenomenon in the natural world.

• Represent a central scientific idea and organizing principle.

• Have rich explanatory power.

• Guide fruitful investigations.

• Apply to situations and contexts common to everyday experiences.

• Can be linked to meaningful learning experiences.

• Are developmentally appropriate for students at the grade level specified.

**Unifying Concepts and Processes**

NSES Framework: Systems, order, and organization • Evidence, models and explanation • Constancy, change, and measurement • Evolution and equilibrium • Form and function

Core Concepts/Processes: Interdisciplinary integrative studies organize around 15 everyday materials plus common recyclables.

**Science as Inquiry (content standard A)**

NSES Framework: Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations. • Design and conduct a scientific investigation. • Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data. • Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence. • Think critically and logically to connect evidence and explanations. • Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions. • Communicate scientific procedures and explanations. • Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.

Core Inquiries: Fifteen simple materials (paper clips, masking tape, clothespins and such), drive 100 lessons.

**Physical Science (content standard B)**

NSES Framework: Position and motion of objects • Light, heat, electricity, and magnetism • Properties and changes of properties in matter • Motions and forces • Transfer of energy • Interactions of energy and matter

Core Content: Pendulums • Electricity • Magnetism • Balance-beams • Comparing masses • Length, area and volume • Dry and liquid measure • Metric system logic • Significant figures

**Life Science (content standard C)**

NSES Framework: Structure and function in living systems • Organisms and environments • Behavior of organisms

Core Content: Observation of plants and animals • Adaptations • Camouflage • Seed germination • Variables affecting growing and development.

**Science and Technology (content standard E)**

NSES Framework: Abilities of technological design • Understanding about science and technology

Core Content: You don't need fancy equipment to teach solid science. Just improvise! Fifteen everyday materials drive 100 hands-on, minds-on experiments.

**Science in Personal and Social Perspectives (content standard F)**

NSES Framework: Science and technology in local challenge • Science and technology in local, national and global challenges

Core Content: Take your science 'supply room' with you, in a box under your arm, anywhere in the world. • Teach hands-on science and math anywhere in the world with few educational or lab resources.