Table of Contents for #22 Machines:
Preparation and Support
A TOPS Model for Effective Science Teaching Getting Ready Gathering Materials Sequencing Task Cards Gaining a Whole Perspective Long Range Objectives Review/Test Questions
Activities and Lesson Notes
- 1. Levers (1)
- 2. Work
- 3. Levers (2)
- 4. Paper Clip Pulley (1)
- 5. Paper Clip Pulley (2)
- 6. Wheel Pulley
- 7. Combination Pulley
- 8. Inclined Plane (1)
- 9. Inclined Plane (2)
- 10. What Kind of Machine?
- 11. What Kind of Lever?
- 12. Super Pulley
- 13. Tug-of-War
- 14. Wheel and Axle
- 15. Spin Your Wheels!
- 16. Horsepower
protractor graph paper
Complete Master List for #22 Machines:
Key: (1st/2nd/3rd) denote needed quantities: (1st) enough for 1 student doing all activities; (2nd) enough for 30 students working in self-paced pairs; (3rd) enough for 30 students working in pairs on the same lesson. Starred* items may be purchased below.
- 6/60/90: identical textbooks
- 1/10/10: meter sticks
- 1/10/10: large rubber stoppers
- 1/1/1: plastic jug of water with cap, one gallon
- * 1/1/1: roll of masking tape
- 1/10/10: rulers, centimeters or inches
- * 1/10/10: baby food jars with tight-fitting lids
- * 1/1/1: spool of thread
- * 1/10/10: spring scales, 2 to 3 Newton capacity (250 grams)
- 1/1/1: roll of plastic wrap
- 1/5/10: pair of scissors
- * 1/1/1: box of paper clips
- 1/10/10: ring stands (optional)
- * 1/5/10: single wheel pulleys
- 2/20/20: flexible-neck drinking straws, commonly sold in grocery stores.
- 1/1/2: paper punch tools
- 1/10/10: pieces of cardboard cut from boxes, about as long and wide as notebook paper.
- 2/20/20: index cards, 4x6 inches work best
- 1/1/2: staplers
- 1/1/1: bolts (optional)
- 1/1/1: can opener (optional)
- 1/1/1: nut cracker (optional)
- 1/1/1: broom
- 1/10/10: flexible wire, about 14 gauge (or a wire coat hanger and pair of cutting pliers)
- 1/1/1: strong smooth post, fixed upright
- 1/1/1: 20 foot cord or rope
- 1/10/10: medium-sized cans
- * 4/40/40: rubber bands
- 1/10/10: small lids from cooking oil bottles, or equivalent
- 1/10/10: large lids from mayonnaise jars, or equivalent
- 1/1/1: small nail or thumbtack
- 1/1/1: hammer
- * 2/20/20: straight pins
- 1/1/1: roll of string
- 1/1/1: flight of stairs
- 1/1/1: yard stick (or a one-foot ruler and string)
- 1/1/1: stopwatch
- 1/1/1: bathroom scale (optional)
- 1/5/10: hand calculators
Baby Food Jars - assorted
Each set includes 4 small, 4 medium and 4 large glass jars.
size #1, steel, box of 100
Paper clips have 1001 uses in TOPS experiments, and science in general. Feel free to use paper clips you already have, but be aware that different brands come in different sizes and weights. In experiments where uniformity is important, don't mix brands.
A specialty item needed for #22 Machines.
Rubber Bands - assorted
10 grams each of thin, medium and thick
You get 30 grams of soft, strong, durable rubber bands: thin #16 (about 50), medium #32 (about 20), and heavy-duty #64 (about 10). These sizes are specifically selected to work in most TOPS experiments.
2.5 Newton, 250 gram capacity
A zero-adjustable scale that measures weight and force at different angles (from vertical to horizontal) to the nearest 5 grams. Spring scales with twice this capacity (500 g) gives you only half the precision (nearest 10 grams) and may lack the needed accuracy. Used in #21 Motion and #22 Machines.
steel, one and 1/16 inch long
Used in many TOPS experiments. Sometimes required for their magnetic properties. Don't purchase aluminum straight pins by mistake.
Stopper - rubber
black rubber, size #6, no hole
Used in #09 Floating and Sinking, #14 Kinetic Model, and #22 Machines.
Tape - masking
3/4 inch x 60 yd roll
A handy science supply used in most TOPS modules.
light duty, 25 yd spool
Just plain old thread. Used in many TOPS titles, especially in Pendulums #34.
Teaching Tips for #22 Machines:
We encourage improvisation - it's one of the main goals of our hands-on approach! You and your students might invent a simpler, sturdier or more accurate system; might ask a better question; might design a better extension. Hooray for ingenuity! When this occurs, we'd love to hear about it and share it with other educators. Please send ideas and photos to firstname.lastname@example.org.
National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) for #22 Machines:
These 16 Task Cards promote excellence in science teaching by these NSES criteria:
Teachers of science...
A: ...plan an inquiry-based science program. (p. 30)
B: ...guide and facilitate learning. (p. 32)
C: ...engage in ongoing assessment of their teaching and of student learning. (p. 37)
D: ...design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources needed for learning science. (p. 43)
These 16 Task Cards contain fundamental content as defined by these NSES guidelines (p. 109).
Represent a central event or phenomenon in the natural world.
Represent a central scientific idea and organizing principle.
Have rich explanatory power.
Guide fruitful investigations.
Apply to situations and contexts common to everyday experiences.
Can be linked to meaningful learning experiences.
Are developmentally appropriate for students at the grade level specified.
Unifying Concepts and Processes
NSES Framework: Systems, order, and organization Evidence, models and explanation Constancy, change, and measurement Form and function
Core Concepts/Processes: Machines give a force or distance advantage, but never save work.
Science as Inquiry (content standard A)
NSES Framework: Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations. Design and conduct a scientific investigation. Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data. Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence. Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions. Communicate scientific procedures and explanations. Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.
Core Inquiries: Multiply force by distance to calculate work and estimate machine efficiency.
Physical Science (content standard B)
NSES Framework: Motions and forces Conservation of energy
Core Content:Weigh loads Measure effort Calculate work Compute machine efficiency Identify levers, pulleys and inclined planes Study gear ratios Calculate horsepower
Science and Technology (content standard E)
NSES Framework: Abilities of technological design Understanding about science and technology
Core Content: Study levers, pulleys, inclined planes, wheels and axles, and gears.